After this election I am a bit less attached to the electoral system than I was. Partly because of what you have written and in part because of observing this election’s results.
Before getting to that, my TV watching friends here in battleground Arizona want the electoral system to go away to reduce the number of political ads which they had grown so sick of that they longed for a return of viagra ads. Are those actually a thing?
The election itself was telling. Races for state and local office (non-electrical college) did not yield the “blue wave.” If I’m not mistaken, I could be, it is a bit rare that a new President doesn’t bring the Senate and House with him. To avoid contentiousness I’ll refrain from giving my opinion on the why of that and just say that people all over America didn’t rush to the Democratic party and the presidential election was a typical holds your nose and vote. Local races were about issues and policy (at least that’s what I think based upon what the buzz was) and the presidential race was about Trump. Time will tell, after the vote is finalized, if the electoral college made a difference this time. That doesn’t really change the points you mentioned about it as a system for the 21st century.
Is America really polarized? Perhaps not as universally as we are led to believe, but on some issues I think we are. The dividers play on that in an effort to maintain a divide, real or illusion.